واکاوی کاربردهای تحلیل هزینه-اثربخشی در تصمیم گیریها و سیاستگذاریهای آموزشی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.22080/eps.2023.24820.2160

چکیده

در راستای تأمین اطلاعات علمی-فنی دقیق و کاربردی برای بهبود تصمیم گیریها و سیاستگذاریهای آموزشی که با ساختارها و پیچیدگیهای زیادی احاطه شده اند، مطالعه حاضر، تحلیل چندوجهی هزینه-اثربخشی را پیشنهاد کرده است؛ این روش با تلفیق دو تحلیل متعارف و پُراستفاده یعنی تحلیل تولید و تحلیل هزینه، اطلاعات علمی-فنی مناسب و غنی برای اولویت بندی گزینه های ناظر به تصمیمات تخصیص منابع در آموزش و پرورش فراهم می‏کند و قابلیتهای بی‏بدیلی در اختیار تصمیم‏گیران و سیاستگذاران قرار میدهد. تحلیل هزینه-اثربخشی با دو روش ساده و تفصیلی قابل انجام است که طی سالهای اخیر روش ساده بطور چشم گیری مورد توجه محققان قرار گرفته اما روش تفصیلی برغم قابلیتهای بی بدیل آن، بطور کلی در عرصۀ تحقیقات آموزشی، دچار کم توجهی مفرط بوده است. از این رو مطالعه حاضر، قابلیتهای تحلیل هزینه-اثربخشی تفصیلی را با اتکا به سه مجموعه اطلاعات آماری آموزشی متفاوت شناسایی و بازنمایی کرده است. دستاوردها نشان دادند که ویژگیها و کیفیت داده های آماری در دسترس نقش کلیدی در اجرا و انجام تحلیل هزینه-اثربخشی با رویکرد تفصیلی دارد. همچنین، مشخص گردید که تحلیل تولیدات (ستانده های) آموزشی و تحلیل هزینه ها به تنهایی نتایج غیردقیق و عموماً ناسازگاری برای تصمیم گیری و سیاستگذاری فراهم می‏کنند. با انجام تحلیل هزینه-اثربخشی، دو مسئلۀ اساسی کم دقتی و ناسازگاری مورد اشاره برطرف می‏شود و در عین حال، اطلاعات علمی-فنی جزئی و عمیقی برای ارتقای کیفیت تصمیم گیریها و سیاستگذاریها فراهم می‏گردد. در پایان، پیشنهادات کاربردی-سیاستی و علمی-پژوهشی مرتبط برای توسعه کاربردهای تحلیل هزینه-اثربخشی در عرصۀ تحقیقات آموزشی ارائه شده‏اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Exploring the Applications of Cost-effectiveness Analysis in Educational Decision-Making and Policy Development

نویسنده [English]

  • Abolghasem Naderi Roushanavand
Professor, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

To provide appropriate scientific information for improving the quality of decision-making and policy development in educational context dominated by complicated hierarchical structures, this article offers cost-effectiveness analysis. The analysis which is based on the integration of two popular analyses that is production analysis and cost analysis, helps provide compiling results and scientific information essential for decision makers and policy makers. Of the two implementing approaches, it is the short-cut approach which has attracted more attention, though the advanced approach entailed more capabilities and rarely used in educational research. Using three distinctive educational data sets, this study explores the unique capabilities of the advanced approach of cost-effectiveness analysis for that purpose. It was found that the characteristics of data sets are important in exploring the capabilities of the advanced approach. We have also showed that the conventional production and cost analyses provide incomplete and in part misleading results. It is through the application of cost-effectiveness analysis we were able to achieve accurate and consistent results that help provide appropriate scientific information for improving decision-making and policy development. At the end, policy implications were drawn and discussed and guide lines for the applications of cost-effectiveness analysis for future educational research have been offered.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cost-effectiveness analysis
  • Production analysis
  • Cost analysis
  • Educational decision-making
  • Education policy development
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